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Goncharov Andrey Dmitrievich
July 9 (22), 1903 (Moscow) — June 6, 1979 (Moscow)  Graphic artist, painter, book illustrator, scene-designer, teacher  Andrey Goncharov studied at the K. F. Yuon and I. O. Dudin School of Painting and Drawing in Moscow (1915–1916). He attended the studio of I. Mashkov (1917–1918). In 1918–1921 Goncharov studied at the State Free Art Studios under the guidance of I. Mashkov, later under A. Shevchenko. In 1921–1927 he was a student of the faculty of graphic art at the Higher State Artistic and Technical Workshops (VKhUTEMAS) — the Higher Art Technical Institute (VKhUTEIN); he studied under N. Kupreyanov and N. Pavlinov, in 1927 — under V. Favorsky. Goncharov was under the influence of Favorsky; he was interested in technique of woodcut due to Favorsky. His graduation work was illustrations to the poem Pugachev by S. Esenin (engravings).  In 1924 Goncharov together with A. Deineka and Y. Pimenov founded Group of Three and participated in the 1st discussion exhibition of groups of the active revolutionary art in Moscow. Andrey Goncharov was one of the founders of the Society of Easel Artists (OST, 1925–1932). He took part in all four exhibitions of the Society; he exposed both paintings and drawings. Art critics noticed versatility of Goncharov’art: “Andrey Goncharov was not only graphic artist, but a talented painter. In his works, which were exposed at the exhibitions of OST, he approved himself as a gifted colorist and master of drawing.” In contrast to other members of OST, which depicted the modern life, Goncharov chose historical events as a subject of paintings and drawings. At the 4th exhibition of OST he exposed the painting The Death of Marat (1927). In 1928 the first personal exhibition of Goncharov was held in Kazan. In the same year he took part in the All-Union printing exhibition in Moscow. He was awarded diploma of the exhibition.  Goncharov was a member of the society Four Arts (1925–1931), society Oktyabr (“October”, 1930), the Russian Association of Proletarian Artists (RAPKh, 1931). Since 1932 he was a member of Moscow Regional Union of Soviet Artists (MOSSKh).  Since 1920s Goncharov was engaged in book graphic art. He designed books for the State Publishing House (GIZ), the State Publishing House of Children’s Literature (Detgiz), the State Publishing House for Literature (Goslitizdat), the Publishing Houses Iskusstvo (“Art”), Academia, Khudozhestvennaya literatura (“Belletristic literature”), Molodaya Gvardia (“The Young Guard”) and others. Goncharov drew illustrations to the books Monkey and glasses by I. Krylov (1922), The Twelve by A. Blok (1924), The Upas Tree by A. Pushkin (1930) and many others.  In 1920s–1930s Goncharov worked as a scene-designer. He designed the performances The Italian Straw Hat by E. Labiche (1924, the Nemirovich-Danchenko Music Theatre, Moscow), Death of Mr. Marapit by K. Davidovsky (1927, the 4th studio of Moscow Art Theatre, MKhAT, Moscow; in collaboration with Y. Pimenov), Mstislav the Daring by I. Prut (1932), Soldiers by B. Romashov (1933, both — in the Central Theatre of Red Army, TsTKA, Moscow).  Goncharov participated in making film Laurels for Ms. Helen Grey (Record, 1935, film studio Vostok-film).  Goncharov was engaged also in monumental painting. He together with group of students of the Higher State Artistic and Technical Workshops (VKhUTEMAS) designed walls of the club in Ruza town in 1921. He painted panel The Abduction of Europa (1929) for foyer in Moscow theatre-studio under the guidance Y. Zavadsky, panel Concert at factory for the Soviet pavilion at the World exhibition in Paris (1937), panel Cotton (1939) for pavilion at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition and others.  Goncharov lectured in Moscow State University (department of fine arts at the faculty of ethnology), in the Higher State Artistic and Technical Workshops (VKhUTEMAS) — the Higher Art Technical Institute (VKhUTEIN) in 1924–1926 (assistant of V. Favorsky at the course of graphic art). He taught at the art courses in the Frunzensky district department for people’s education (1927–1929), in VKhUTEIN (department in Leningrad, 1929–1930), in Moscow Polygraphic Institute (1930–1934, 1948–1979), in Moscow Institute of Fine Arts (MIII, 1934–1938), in the Institute of the advanced trainings for graphic artists under Moscow Municipal Committee of graphic art (1938–1940), in Moscow Institute of Applied and Decorative Arts (MIPiDI) at the faculty of monumental painting (1948–1949). In 1958 Goncharov was conferred the title of professor.  Goncharov participated in different exhibitions: the First State travelling exhibition (1925, Moscow, Saratov, Stalingrad, Kazan, and Nizhny Novgorod), exhibition Engraving of the USSR for 10 years (1927, Moscow), the Exhibition of works of Art by the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution (1928, Moscow), the Exhibition of German artists (1928, Berlin), the First travelling exhibition of painting and drawing (1929, Moscow), the exhibition of modern graphic art (1929, Yerevan), jubilee exhibition Artists of the RSFSR for 15 years (1932, Leningrad; 1933, Moscow), art exhibition 15 years of RKKA (RKKA — Workers’–Peasants’ Red Army; 1933, Moscow; 1934, Leningrad, Kiev; 1935, Kharkov), the exhibition Industry of Socialism (1939, Moscow), Heroic front and rear (November 1943 — September 1944, Moscow), the All-Union art exhibitions in 1947 and in 1950 (both — in Moscow), the exhibition of painting, drawing, sculpture and scene-design in Moscow and Leningrad (1955, Moscow), the exhibition of painting, drawing and sculpture to the First All-Union congress of Soviet artists (1957, Moscow), the exhibition 40 years of VLKSM (VLKSM — the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League; 1958, Moscow) and others.  Works of Goncharov were often exposed at exhibitions abroad: international exhibition Art of the Book (1927, Leipzig, Nuremberg), exhibition Graphics and book art in the USSR (1929, Amsterdam), Modern Russian Art (1930, Vienna), exhibition of Soviet graphics and book art (1930, London), exhibition of Soviet Art (1930, Berlin), international exhibition Art of the Book (1931, Paris; 1932, Lion), the 18th International exhibition of arts (1932, Venice) and others.  In 1937 Goncharov was awarded gold medal and Grand Prix at the World exhibition in Paris.  In 1943–1945 he worked in the magazine Frontovoy Yumor (“Frontline Humor”). Later he was art director of the exhibition Political work in units of the 3rd Belarusian front.  In 1950s–1970s Goncharov was engaged not only in painting and drawing, but in monumental art, book graphic art and scene-design.  Goncharov was the author of several books on art: Art of graphic art (1960), Artist and book (1964). In 1969 he was conferred the title of Honoured Art Worker of RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic). In 1973 he became corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Arts. In 1979 Goncharov was conferred the title of the People’s Artist of the RSFSR.  In 1971 he became Laureate of the Gutenberg Award; in 1973 — the State Prize of USSR.  Personal exhibitions of Goncharov were held in 1928 (Kazan), 1934 (two exhibitions), 1946, 1955, 1958, 1959, 1960 (all — Moscow), 1962 (Leningrad), 1965, 1984 (both — Moscow).
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